A colon polypectomy is the removal of polyps from the inside lining of the colon, also called the large intestine. A polyp is a mass of tissue. Some types of polyps can develop into cancer. Most polyps can be removed during a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy.
The purpose of the surgery is to remove a polyp. It is done to prevent cancer.
In rare cases, larger polyps can cause troublesome symptoms, such as rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, and bowel irregularities. A polyp removal will relieve these symptoms.
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have a polypectomy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
- Damage to the colon wall
- Adverse reaction to the sedative
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
- Type, size, and location of the polyp
- Patient factors, such as blood-clotting disorders, substance abuse, or other diseases like obesity and diabetes
Your doctor will likely do the following:
- Physical exam and health history
- Review of medicines
- Your bodily fluids may need to be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
- Pictures of your colon may need to be taken. This can be done with X-rays or a Barium enema.
- An examination of your intestine may need to be done. This can be done with a diagnostic colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy.
Your colon must be completely cleaned before the procedure. Any stool left in the intestine will block the view. This preparation may start several days before the procedure. Follow your doctor's instructions, which may include any of the following cleansing methods:
- Enemas —fluid introduced into the rectum to stimulate a bowel movement
- Laxatives—medicines that cause you to have soft bowel movements
- A clear-liquid diet
- Oral cathartic medicines—a large container of fluid to drink, which stimulates a bowel movement
Talk to your doctor about your medicines. You may be asked to stop taking some medicines up to one week before the procedure, like:
- Anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin
- Blood thinners, like clopidogrel (Plavix) or warfarin (Coumadin)
- Iron supplements or vitamins containing iron
- The night before, eat a light meal. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight.
- Wear comfortable clothing.
- If you have diabetes, ask your doctor if you need to adjust your insulin dose.
- Arrange for a ride home after the procedure.
You will receive a sedative. This will help you relax. You will be drowsy but awake.
You will be asked to lie on your side or on your back. A scope, a long flexible tube with a camera on the end, will be inserted through the anus. It will be slowly pushed through the rectum to the colon. The scope will also add air to open the colon.
Using the scope, the doctor will locate the polyp. The polyp will be snipped off with a wire snare from the scope. In some cases, the polyp may be destroyed with an electric current. The electric current is also used to close the wound and stop bleeding. The polyps will then be removed for lab testing. When the doctor is finished, the scope will be slowly removed.
For larger polyps, a laparoscopic surgical procedure may be needed. Special surgical tools will be inserted through small incisions in the abdomen. The tools will be used to locate and remove the polyp.
After the procedure, the polyps will be sent to a lab for testing.
Expect a complete recovery within two weeks. Be sure to follow your doctor's instructions , which may include:
- The sedative will make you drowsy. Do not drive, operate machinery, or make important decisions the day of the procedure.
- Return to your normal diet the same or next day. Avoid tea, coffee, cola drinks, alcohol, and spicy foods for at least 2-3 days following surgery. These can irritate the digestive system.
- Resume normal activities as soon as you feel able. Most people feel well enough by the next day.
- Ask your doctor when you can exercise.
- Ask your doctor about when it is safe to shower, bathe, or soak in water.
- You will be scheduled for a follow-up colonoscopy in the future. It will be important to check for polyps.
Your doctor will discuss the results with you either the day of surgery or the following day.
Content was created using EBSCO’s Health Library. Edits to original content made by Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice.