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Impetigo

Impetigo

Impetigo is a skin infection. It often appear as blisters around the mouth and nose, but it can infect skin anywhere on the body. Impetigo can easily spread from one person to another and occurs mostly in children.

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Impetigo: Sores on the Upper Lip

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Impetigo is caused by bacteria. The most common type of bacteria associated with this infection include:

  • Group A Streptococcus
  • Staphylococcus

These types of bacteria are normally found on the skin and in the nose. The bacteria does not cause trouble until it gets under the skin. Bacteria gets in under the skin through small cuts, scratches or insect bites.

Risk

Factors that increase your chance for impetigo include:

  • Age: most impetigo occurs in preschool and school-aged children
  • Touching a person with impetigo
  • Touching the clothing, towels, sheets or other personal items that belong to a person with impetigo
  • Poor hygiene, particularly unwashed hands and dirty fingernails
  • Crowded settings where there is direct person-to-person contact, such as schools and the military
  • Contact sports such as football and wrestling
  • Warm, humid environment
  • Summer season
  • Poor health or weakened immune system
  • Tendency to have skin problems such as eczema, poison ivy or skin allergy
  • Cuts, scratches, insect bites, or other injury to the skin
  • Chickenpox
  • Lice infections which cause scratching (like scabies, head lice or public lice)

Symptoms

Symptoms of impetigo appear 4-10 days after contact with the bacteria.

The main signs of impetigo are skin lesions. They occur most often on the face, arms or legs but can appear anywhere on the body. The lesions may be red spots, sores, or blisters. The lesion may:

  • Ooze and become covered with a flat, dry, honey-colored crust
  • Itch
  • Increase in size
  • Spread, especially if scratched

There may also be swollen lymph nodes in the area with more serious infections.

Impetigo is normally a fairly mild condition. However, further problems could develop if it is not treated. The infection could spread. This can lead to pain, swelling, pus, or fever. Rarely, impetigo that is caused by Group A Streptococcus may develop into:

  • Glomerulonephritis —damage to part of the kidney
  • Scarlet fever—illness that may include a fever, sore throat and widespread rash
  • Life-threatening, invasive streptococcal disease

Diagnosis

Your doctor will be able to diagnose impetigo by the look of your skin lesions. A skin sample of the infected skin will show what specific bacteria are causing the infection, to guide treatment choices.

Treatment

Treatment may include:

Antibiotics

For a mild infection your doctor may recommend:

  • Prescription topical antibiotic
  • Over-the-counter topical antibiotic 
  • Topical antibiotics for the inside of the nose — bacteria can hide in the nose and make it easy for the infection to return
  • Oral antibiotics

In some cases, staphylococcal infections (such as MRSA) may be resistant to these antibiotics.

Skin Care

Good skin care can help prevent the spread of the infection to other areas of your skin or to others. In general:

  • Do not touch or scratch the lesions.
  • Wash the skin several times a day with soap and water or an antibiotic soap.
  • The crusts may be removed by soaking the infected area. Place warm water on the area for about 15 minutes.
  • Lesions should be covered loosely with gauze, a bandage or clothing.

To help avoid spreading the infection:

  • Wash your hands often and thoroughly. Make sure you wash under your fingernails where bacteria can hide. It is important to wash your hands after touching an infected area of your body.
  • Avoid contact with newborn babies.
  • Stay home until you have had treatment for 24 hours.
  • Do not handle food at home until you have had treatment for at least 24 hours.
  • If you work in the food service industry, ask your doctor when it is safe for you to return to work.

Prevention

Prevention of impetigo involves good personal hygiene. The following tips can help:

  • Bathe daily with soap and water.
  • Wash your face, hands, and hair regularly.
  • If caring for someone with impetigo, be sure to wash your hands after each time you touch the person.
  • Do not share towels, clothes, or sheets. This is more important with a person who has impetigo.
  • Keep fingernails short and clean.
  • Change and wash clothing often.
  • Do not let your children play or have close contact with someone who may have impetigo.
  • Wash wounds, such as cuts, scratches, or insect bites, with soap and water. Consider applying a small amount of antibiotic ointment. Cover the wound with a bandage.

 

Content was created using EBSCO’s Health Library. Edits to original content made by Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice.

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