Mumps is a viral infection. The infection causes fever and swelling of the parotid glands. These glands are located on the side of the face, near the ear. Because of the mumps vaccine, this condition is not as common as it once was in the United States.
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The virus is usually spread through contact with an infected person's saliva. The mumps virus spreads easily among people in close contact.
These factors increase your chance of developing mumps:
- Being unvaccinated and exposed to people who have mumps
- Being born after 1956 and never having mumps, or not being vaccinated after first birthday
- Age: 10-19 years
- Season: winter
- Having a weakened immune system, even if you have been vaccinated
About one-third of cases do not have symptoms. Symptoms often occur 2-3 weeks after exposure to the virus.
Mumps may cause:
- Painful swelling of the parotid glands
- Lack of appetite
- Sore throat
- Stiff neck
- Nausea and vomiting
Other areas may also be affected, such as:
- Swelling and pain under the tongue, jaw, or front of the chest
- In males: painful inflammation of the testicles
- In females: inflammation of the ovaries, which results in pain or tenderness in the abdomen
There is no specific treatment for mumps. Viruses cannot be treated with antibiotics.
In general, mumps will last about 10-12 days. Try these comfort measures:
- Apply hot or cold compresses to swollen areas.
- Gargle with warm salt water to soothe a sore throat.
- Treat high fever with acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
- Drink plenty of liquids. Avoid tart or acidic drinks such as, orange juice or lemonade
- Eat a soft, bland diet.
Note: Do not give aspirin to children or teens with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving a child aspirin.
In most healthy children, complications are rare. When complications do occur, they include:
- Deafness, which may not be permanent
- Swelling or infection of the brain, pancreas, heart, or other organs
- Testicular inflammation
- Problems with male fertility
Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent mumps. The vaccine contains live viruses that can no longer cause disease. The mumps vaccine is usually given in combination with:
- Measles and rubella vaccine (MMR)
- Measles, rubella and varicella (chicken pox) vaccine (MMRV)
The regular schedule for giving the vaccine is at age 12-15 months and again at age 4-6 years.
Ask your doctor if the vaccine is right for you. In general, avoid the vaccine if you:
- Have had severe allergic reactions to vaccines or vaccine components
- Are pregnant — Avoid pregnancy for 1-3 months after receiving the vaccine.
- Have a weakened immune system
- Have a high fever or severe upper respiratory tract infection
If you are not vaccinated, avoid contact with someone who has mumps. Discuss the benefits of vaccination with your doctor.
DO YOU NEED TREATMENT FOR MUMPS?
Make an appointment at our Infectious Disease Clinic.
Content was created using EBSCO’s Health Library. Edits to original content made by Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice.