Postmenopausal Bleeding

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Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) is bleeding from the vagina that happens after a woman has stopped having regular menstrual periods due to menopause. Any vaginal bleeding that occurs 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual period is considered PMB.

Causes of PMB

Several factors can cause PMB, including:

  • Continuous hormone therapy 
  • Thinning and loss of elasticity of the vagina
  • Inflammation of the lining of the uterus
  • Endometrial hyperplasia, a thickening of endometrium
  • Polyps, noncancerous growths on the uterus or cervix
  • Infection of the uterus or cervix
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Fibroid tumors in the uterus or vagina

Some medical conditions and medications can increase your chances of having PMB.

Diagnosing & Treating the Cause

Tests can find the cause of the bleeding. Tests include:

  • Transvaginal ultrasound
  • Uterine ultrasound
  • Hysteroscopy
  • MRI scan

Your doctor may also collect cell and tissue samples through an endometrial biopsy or a cervical cancer screening.

Treatment depends on the findings of your tests and the cause of the bleeding.


Content was created using EBSCO’s Health Library. Edits to original content made by Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice.