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Blood in Urine

Blood in the urine is also called hematuria. Normally, urine does not contain blood.

There are two kinds of hematuria:

  • Microscopic hematuria — urine contains a small amount of blood, which is not visible to the naked eye
  • Gross hematuria — urine is visibly discolored by blood, appearing red or tea-colored

What Causes Hematuria?

In some cases, the cause of hematuria is never found. Some more common causes include:

  • Injury to the abdomen, pelvis or internal organs of the urinary tract
  • Vigorous exercise (resolves with rest)
  • Urinary tract infection or kidney infection
  • Cancer of the prostate, kidney or bladder
  • Kidney disease
  • Kidney stones
  • Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia
  • Certain congenital diseases such as polycystic kidneys
  • Radiation of the pelvis for cancer treatment
  • Certain medications

Risk factors include:

  • Smoking
  • Medications, such as certain antibiotics and pain medications
  • Recent upper respiratory tract infection
  • Family history of kidney problems


Symptoms of Hematuria

In some cases, there may not be additional symptoms. You may experience symptoms for an underlying condition. For example, kidney stones can cause blood in the urine, along with pain in the side, abdomen or groin.

Call your doctor any time you notice blood in your urine.

Diagnosing Hematuria

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. Your doctor may be refer you to a neprhologist who specializes in kidney disease.

Your doctor may need to conduct tests that include:

  • Urine tests
  • Blood tests

Your doctor may also need to view your bodily structures. This can be done with:

  • X-ray
  • Ultrasound
  • CT scan
  • MRI scan
  • Cystoscopy

Treating Blood in the Urine

Treatment depends on the cause of hematuria. Hematuria can resolve on its own, and you may not need treatment. Other causes respond to medication. For example, antibiotic treatment for a urinary tract infection can help stop the hematuria. You may require surgery to remove any tumors or treat prostate cancer.


Call the Urology Clinic.


Content was created using EBSCO’s Health Library. Edits to original content made by Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice.

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