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Home > Services > Urology > Urology Conditions & Treatments > Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any part of the urinary system. Most UTIs start in the lower urinary tract in the bladder or urethra. A UTI can also include an infection in the kidneys.

Types of urinary tract infections:

  • Urethritis — an infection in the urethra
  • Cystitis — bladder infection
  • Kidney infection


The Urinary Tract
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What Causes a UTI?

Bacteria from the digestive tract or rectal area can causes UTIs. Bacteria clings to the opening of the urethra and multiplies. If the infection is not treated right away, bacteria may move up the urinary system to the kidneys.

Factors that may increase your risk of developing a UTI include:

  • Female gender — the rectum and urethra are close to each other, making infection more likely
  • Being sexually active — UTIs can also be sexually transmitted. This type of infection usually does not spread past the urethra. Both partners need to be treated.
  • Using a diaphragm for birth control
  • Menopause
  • Diabetes
  • Kidney stones
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Weak immune system
  • Abnormalities of the urinary system, such as vesicoureteral reflux or polycystic kidneys
  • Paraplegia or quadriplegia
  • Sickle-cell anemia
  • History of kidney transplant
  • Bladder catheter in place or recent device inserted into the urinary system
  • Pregnancy

Symptoms of a Urinary Tract Infection

Symptoms may include:

  • Frequent and urgent need to urinate
  • Passing small amounts of urine
  • Pain in the abdomen or pelvic area
  • Burning sensation during urination
  • Cloudy, bad-smelling urine
  • Increased need to get up at night to urinate
  • Leaking urine
  • Fever and chills
  • Nausea and poor appetite

An infection in the kidney can be more serious. Call your doctor right away if you have symptoms of a kidney infection, such as:

  • Bloody urine
  • Low back pain or pain along the side of the ribs
  • High fever and chills

Diagnosing a UTI

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms, medical history and perform a physical exam. Your doctor will also test a sample of your urine for blood, pus and bacteria.

Infections in men and children are more likely caused by structural problems of the kidneys, bladder or tubes. They may need more testing to determine the cause of a UTI.

Treating Your UTI

Standard medical care for a UTI includes taking antibiotics for three days. It's important that you continue to take the entire course of medication, even if you feel better.

You may have your urine checked after you finish taking the antibiotics. This is to make sure that the infection is truly gone. If you have recurrent infections, you may be referred to a specialist.

The infection may cause pain and spasms in the bladder. Your doctor may recommend a medication that may turn your urine, and sometimes your sweat, an orange color.

If you have a severe UTI, your doctor may give you a strong initial dose of antibiotics through an IV or an injection.

Preventing Urinary Tract Infections

Here are some steps you can take to keep bacteria out of your urinary tract:

  • Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day. Cranberry juice is a good choice.
  • Urinate when you feel the need and do not resist the urge.
  • Empty your bladder completely and drink a full glass of water after having sex.
  • Wash genitals daily.
  • If you are a woman, always wipe from the front to the back after having a bowel movement.
  • Avoid using douches and feminine hygiene sprays.


Call the Urology Clinic.  



Content was created using EBSCO’s Health Library. Edits to original content made by Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice.

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