PET/CT scan is a type of imaging test that combines positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) techniques. Combined PET/CT scans can be performed on any part of the body.
PET scans use a radioactive tracer that is introduced into your body to measure the cellular activity of the cell type or body part being scanned. A CT scan takes a large number of x-rays. These are analyzed by a computer to create a 3-dimensional image of the body part being studied. When both tests are performed at the same time, the information about function and structure is integrated through computer models.
The Purpose of a PET/CT
Because PET/CT scans provide a combination of information about the function and structure of a body part, they are useful for the early diagnosis of cancer. Not only can an abnormal tumor be seen, but the function of the cells that make up the tumor can be analyzed as well. This can help to differentiate between cancerous and noncancerous growths. PET/CT can also be used to see if cancer has spread into other areas of the body.
Brain, endocrine and heart disorders are also studied using PET/CT scans.
Possible PET/CT Scan Complications
Some possible complications with this test include:
- Allergic reactions to the chemicals used
- Kidney damage from the contrast chemical used
- Long-term effects from radiation exposure
Before Your PET/CT Scan
Prepare a list of medications you are taking and bring the list with you to the test. If you have diabetes, discuss taking your diabetic medications and/or insulin with your doctor prior to the test. An abnormal blood glucose level may interfere with the tests results.
Let your doctor know if you have kidney disease. The doctor may need to take steps to avoid kidney injury during the test.
To prepare for your test, you may need to do the following several hours in advance:
- Not eat anything after a certain time
- Avoid beverages with high sugar and calorie content
- Drink plenty of water
If you are breastfeeding, talk to your doctor before you go for your test. Your doctor may recommend that you pump breast milk ahead of time and use it until the contrast materials are no longer in your body.
You should also note if you have or ever have had:
- A reaction to a contrast materials or iodine
- Allergies to contrast materials, iodine or seafood
- Claustrophobia or anxiety
During a PET/CT Scan
- If you are anxious about being in enclosed spaces, you may be given a light sedative to help you relax.
- An IV will be placed in your arm.
- A small quantity of the tracer substance (used for the PET portion of the scan) will be injected through the IV. In some cases, the tracer substance will be inhaled or swallowed rather than injected.
- You will wait about 60 minutes after this injection.
- You will be positioned on a table.
- Another injection of contrast material (used for the CT portion of the scan) will be given.
- The table will move slowly through a doughnut-shaped ring. You will need to lie still for about 35 minutes while the PET/CT images are being taken.
How Long Does a PET/CT Scan Take?
A PET/CT scan takes about a total of 2 hours to complete. The injection occurs about an hour prior to the start of the scan. The scan itself takes about 35 minutes.
Does a PET/CT Scan Hurt?
The placement of the IV may give you some discomfort, but there should be no other pain involved. You may feel some flushing when the tracer material is injected.
After a PET/CT Scan
- You should continue to drink extra water throughout the day after your scan. This helps to flush the tracer materials from your body.
- If you have received any sedation, you will need to have someone drive you home.
- You can expect to be able to resume your normal activities the same day as your test.
Based on the results, your doctor will decide if any further tests or treatments are needed.
When to Call Your Doctor
Call your doctor if any of the following occur:
- Signs of allergic reaction, including flushing, hives and itching
- Swollen or itchy eyes
- Difficulty breathing or a feeling of tightness in your throat
- Less urine than normal
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
Content was created using EBSCO’s Health Library. Edits to original content made by Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice.