Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung.
The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body as you breathe in. They release carbon dioxide, a waste product of the body’s cells, as you breathe out. Each lung has sections called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. The right lung is slightly larger and has three lobes. Two tubes called bronchi lead from the trachea (windpipe) to the right and left lungs. The bronchi are sometimes also involved in lung cancer. Tiny air sacs called alveoli and small tubes called bronchioles make up the inside of the lungs.
Smoking cigarettes, pipes, or cigars is the most common cause of lung cancer. The earlier in life a person starts smoking, the more often a person smokes, and the more years a person smokes, the greater the risk of lung cancer. If a person has stopped smoking, the risk becomes lower as the years pass.
These factors increase your chance of developing lung cancer:
- Smoking cigarettes, pipes, or cigars, now or in the past.
- Being exposed to secondhand smoke.
- Having a family history of lung cancer.
- Being treated with radiation therapy to the breast or chest.
- Being exposed to asbestos, chromium, nickel, arsenic, soot, or tar in the workplace.
- Being exposed to radon in the home or workplace.
- Living where there is air pollution.
- Being infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
- Using beta carotene supplements and being a heavy smoker.
When smoking is combined with other risk factors, the risk of lung cancer is increased.
Sometimes lung cancer does not cause any signs or symptoms. It may be found during a chest x-ray done for another condition. Signs and symptoms may be caused by lung cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:
- Chest discomfort or pain.
- A cough that doesn’t go away or gets worse over time.
- Trouble breathing.
- Blood in sputum (mucus coughed up from the lungs).
- Loss of appetite.
- Weight loss for no known reason.
- Feeling very tired.
- Trouble swallowing.
- Swelling in the face and/or veins in the neck.
Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose, and stage non-small cell lung cancer are often done at the same time. Some of the following tests and procedures may be used:
- Physical exam and history
- Laboratory tests
- Chest x-ray
- CT scan
- PET scan
- Sputum cytology
- Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the lung
- Light and electron microscopy
- Radiation therapy
- Targeted therapy
- Laser therapy
- Photodynamic therapy (PDT)
- Watchful waiting
Surgery offers the best chance of cure for lung cancer and is the standard lung cancer treatment for patients with early stage (or limited) disease. When formal surgical resection is not feasible, alternatives for the high-risk patient include performance of a limited resection (removing less lung tissue) or the use of stereotactic radiosurgery, which is performed by UVA's radiation oncologists.
To reduce your risk of getting lung cancer:
- Do not start smoking. If you smoke, quit.
- Avoid places where people are smoking.
- Test your home for radon gases and asbestos. Have these substances removed if they are in the home.
- Do not work in a place with asbestos.
The American Lung Association and American Cancer Society both suggest that screening for lung cancer with a type of CT scan may be considered if you are a smoker (or former smoker), aged 55-74 years, and have a history of heavy smoking (such as one pack a day for 30 years).
Content was created using EBSCO’s Health Library. Edits to original content made by Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice.