A cerebral aneurysm, also called an intracranial aneurysm or brain aneurysm, is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of an artery in the brain. This results in an abnormal widening or ballooning that increases your risk for a rupture or bursting of the aneurysm.
A cerebral aneurysm generally occurs in an artery located in the front part of the brain that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the brain tissue. A normal artery wall consists of three layers. The aneurysm wall has only two layers.
What Causes a Cerebral Aneurysm?
While experts do not clearly understand the cause of cerebral aneurysms, two factors exist:
- An abnormal degenerative (breaking down) change in the wall of an artery
- The effects of pressure from the pulsations of blood being pumped forward through the arteries in the brain
Certain locations of an aneurysm may create greater pressure on the aneurysm, such as at a bifurcation or where the artery divides.
Types of Cerebral Aneurysms
You can have more than one type of aneurysm at the same time. Types include:
- Cerebral aneurysm — This saccular or berry aneurysm accounts for 90% of cerebral aneurysms
- Fusiform aneurysms — A fusiform aneurysm bulges out on all sides and is generally associated with atherosclerosis
- Dissecting aneurysms — May result from a tear in the inner layer of the artery wall, which causes blood to leak into the layers. This may cause a ballooning out on one side of the artery wall, or it may block off or obstruct blood flow through the artery.
Risk Factors for Cerebral Aneurysms
Genetic risk factors may include:
- Alpha-glucosidase deficiency
- Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency
- Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
- Coarctation of the aorta
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (less common)
- Family history of aneurysms
- Female gender
- Fibromuscular dysplasia
- Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia
- Klinefelter syndrome
- Noonan's syndrome
- Polycystic kidney disease (PCKD)
- Tuberous sclerosis
Risk factors developed after birth may include:
- Age — greater than 40 years of age
- Alcohol consumption, especially binge drinking
- Current cigarette use
- Use of illicit drugs like cocaine or amphetamines
- High blood pressure
- Head injury
These risk factors do not necessarily cause the disease. Some people with one or more risk factors never develop the disease, while others develop the disease and have no known risk factors.
Cerebral Aneurysm Symptoms
You might not know that you have a cerebral aneurysm until it ruptures. However, there may be symptoms that occur before an actual rupture when a small amount of blood leaks into the brain.
The symptoms of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm may include:
- Eye pain
- Vision deficits
The first evidence of a cerebral aneurysm may be a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), due to the rupture of the aneurysm. Symptoms that may occur at the time of SAH may include:
- Rapid onset of a terrible headache
- Stiff neck
- Nausea and vomiting
- Changes in mental status, such as drowsiness
- Pain in specific areas, such as the eyes
- Dilated pupils
- Loss of consciousness
- High blood pressure
- Loss of balance or coordination
- Sensitivity to light
- Back or leg pain
- Problems with certain functions of the eyes, nose, tongue and/or ears
The symptoms of a cerebral aneurysm may resemble other problems or medical conditions.
Find out about brain aneurysm treatments.
Content was created using EBSCO’s Health Library. Edits to original content made by Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice.